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Requirements for interiors and components of new energy vehicles

Author:QINSUN Released in:2023-07 Click:115

The new energy battery for vehicles is a lithium battery. As a powerful battery pack, we have found that lithium-ion batteries have outstanding advantages:
1) High specific power. The average operating voltage of lithium-ion batteries is 3.6 V, which is three times that of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries, and the battery can output higher power per unit weight;
2) High specific energy. The specific energy of lithium-ion batteries can currently reach 140Wh/kg, which is much higher than that of nickel-metal hydride and lead-acid batteries, and can store more energy per unit weight;
3) Long service life . At present, the service life of lithium ion batteries has reached more than 1000 times, and can be reached tens of thousands of times at low depths of discharge, with excellent performance;
4) Small self-discharge. The monthly self-discharge rate of lithium-ion batteries is only 6-8%, which is lower is than that of nickel-cadmium batteries (25-30%) and nickel-metal hydride batteries (30-40%);
5) No memory effect. It can be charged at any time according to requirements without reducing battery performance;
6) No pollution to the environment. There are no harmful substances in lithium-ion batteries.

The chain structure of the lithium battery industry is optimistic about key components such as cathode materials, separators and electrolytes. The procurement cost of lithium battery components is as follows: the procurement cost of positive electrode materials (including aluminum box) is about 30% of the total cost, the procurement cost of negative electrode materials (including copper foil) is about 20%, and the diaphragm material accounts for about 20% of the total costs. The electrolyte accounts for about 20% of the purchase cost and the structural parts such as the battery holder account for aboutr 10% of the battery cost.

Cathode material: The cathode material has a major influence on battery performance and is one of the most important components of the battery. Lithium iron phosphate material is a newly developed lithium ion battery material. As a vehicle power energy storage device, special attention should be paid to safety performance. Although lithium cobalt oxide batteries and batteries with ternary materials have the advantages of lower weight and volume, they are not suitable for high-performance batteries used in electric vehicles. From the performance comparison of various lithium ion batteries at present, we can see that lithium iron phosphate batteries are the lithium ion batteries currently used in electric vehicle industrialization. Therefore, enterprises undertaking the large-scale production of lithium iron phosphate and lithium iron phosphate battery technologyhave mastered, take a leading position in the future competition of the electric vehicle industry.

Anode Material: Among the anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, graphite-based carbon anode materials are the most important type of anode materials because of their wide range of resources and low price. In addition to graphitized mesocarbon microspheres and low-end artificial graphite, which occupy a small share of the market, modified natural graphite is gaining more and more market share. In recent years, lithium titanate materials have gradually begun to be used as negative electrodes.
Electrolyte: The electrolyte plays the role of conducting electrons between the positive and negative electrodes in the battery. The main raw material of the electrolyte is lithium hexafluorophosphate, which accounts for more than 50% of the cost of the electrolyte, and the gross profit rate is as high as 75%. Lithium and fluorine in lithium hexafluorophosdue to its scarce resources. My country has restricted the export of fluorite and will certainly restrict the export of hydrofluoric acid in the future. my country\'s lithium and fluorine resources are at the forefront, with the resources for the development of materials related to lithium batteries, and the cost is also advantageous. In the future, it will definitely take an important position in the field of lithium battery materials bit, worth watching.

Diaphragm: In the structure of lithium batteries, the diaphragm is one of the most important inner components. The popular description of the separator is a low-porous plastic film, a high value-added material with the highest technical barriers among lithium battery materials, accounting for about 1/3 of the battery cost. The performance of the separator determines the interface structure and internal resistance of the battery, which directly affects the capacity, cycle performanceties and safety performance of the battery. A separator with excellent performance plays an important role in improving the overall performance of the battery.