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Your location: Home > Related Articles > Martindale Abrasion Test Wear mechanism and test method for abrasion resistance

Martindale Abrasion Test Wear mechanism and test method for abrasion resistance

Author:QINSUN Released in:2023-03 Click:118

Abrasion resistance detected by Martindale Abrasion Tester is an important index of the quality of textile products, which directly affects the durability and use effect of the product. Refers specifically to the fabric\'s ability to resist wear during repeated friction with other fabrics. For example, the external friction of textiles during washing and the physical impact of water and liquid soap; the friction between elbow joints, knee joints and other parts themselves or other objects due to movement during wear. Use the Martindale Abrasion Tester to simulate these types of friction experiments. These frictions lead to damage and fading of the surface coating of textiles, breaking of fiber yarns and even holes, which seriously affect the durability and aesthetics of fabrics. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of abrasion resistance is of great importance for understanding the durability of textiles. Thisarticle discusses the main mechanism of fabric abrasion and the detection method of abrasion resistance using the Martindale Abrasion Tester.

1. Wear and damage process:
There are many reasons for fabric damage during actual wear and use, but practice shows that physical external force friction is the main cause of fabric damage.
According to the damage mechanism of textiles, wear mainly includes the following three wear and damage processes:
1. Fiber extraction and breakage
During the friction process, due to the twisting and stretching of external forces, the fibers interact with each other. Continuous friction and collision between the yarns, yarn loosening and relative position changes between the fibers; during the friction process, the surface of the fibers wear out and the fiber fragments are lost; the outer short fibers are separated from the yarn due to the reduction of thecohesive force between the fibers, causing hair growth; the fiber will fatigue under the reciprocating action of multiple external forces, strength will decrease, break, and hairiness will increase; the internal undyed fiber will transfer to the outer layer of the yarn, changing the color of the fabric surface and affecting the aesthetics.
2. Yarn breakage
Because the fibers are continuously pulled out and broken during the friction process, the actual number of tensioned fibers in the yarn decreases and the cohesive force decreases, resulting in a decrease in yarn strength and the external force continues to act. Eventually the whole yarn will break. Broken threads weaken the strength of the fabric; worn and lost thread fragments cause weight loss and make the fabric thinner; broken ends of yarns or fibers cause more hair on the surface of the fabric and pilling.
3. Dust damage
When the number of broken vdonkeys and threads in the fabric accumulate to some extent, it will cause fabric damage or even holes. The damage of the fabric is mainly manifested in the places where the tension is concentrated, such as the elbow joint, knee joint and other parts.
As a basic element of the fabric composition, the abrasion damage of fabric is essentially the breakage damage of fibers. With the worsening of the degree of fiber damage, the buildup will eventually show marked changes in the appearance of the fabric. The changes in the shape of the fabric are fabric damage, loss of quality, external discoloration (especially coated fabrics), pilling, etc.

2. Factors influencing the abrasion resistance of textiles
The main factors influencing the abrasion resistance of textiles are fiber properties and textile properties.internal structure.
1. Fiber properties and shape and size
① Fiber properties
Theproperties of fibers determine their wear resistance during friction.
The most important properties that influence the abrasion resistance of fibers are the physical properties of fiber stretching, bending and shearing. During the wear process, the fiber is subjected to repeated tension, and the high tensile performance fiber does not affect the deformation ability after repeated stretching, and still has good wear resistance. The order of abrasion resistance of different types of fibers is as follows: Nylon > Polypropylene > Vinylon > Ethylene > Polyester > Acrylic > Chlorine > Wool > Silk > Cotton > Hemp > Strong Fiber > Cupro Fiber > Viscose Fiber > Acetate Fiber > Glass Fiber.
② Shape and size of fibers
The shape and size of fibers also influence the abrasion resistance of textiles.
The morphological dimensions that influence the abrasion resistance of fibers are mainly the length, thickness and shape of the cross-section of the fiber. Yarns spun from longer fibers have better mechanical properties such as strength, elongation and resistance to fatigue, and therefore have better wear resistance. Yarns spun from small fineness fibers have good strength, elongation and fatigue resistance, but too small fineness fibers are easily damaged when subjected to frictional force. Therefore, when selecting the fiber size, the fineness of the fiber should be increased first while maintaining the tensile strength and shear strength of the fiber. Due to the uneven internal force of the fiber under the action of external force, the strength of the special-shaped cross-section fiber is lower than that of the circular cross-section fiber.
2. Geometric composition of textiles
The geometric composition of textiles determines the thickness, density and weight per unit area of ​​the fabric, which influences the interaction state of the yarnsinfluenced by external forces.
The following applies to the fabric structure: the tighter the structure, the better the wear resistance of the fabric. For example, of the three basic weaves of plain weave, twill weave and satin weave, satin weave is the loosest, and there is a long piece of yarn on the surface that is in a disjointed state and is most susceptible to snagging and breaking under the influence of external power. In general, the thicker the fabric, the higher the warp and weft density, the greater the weight per unit area, the higher the apparent density, and the higher the hair content, the better the wear resistance; otherwise, the worse the wear resistance.

Third, the method of testing the wear resistance of textiles
According to the stacking condition of the samples in the wear test, it can be simply divided into flat grinding method and curved sharpening method There are three types of hem and sharpening methods.
1. Flat sgrinding method
means that the textile sample is rubbed on its face under a certain pressure with a standard abrasive according to a predetermined trajectory, resulting in damage to the sample. fabric is indicated by the number of rubs it carries.
The flat grinding method is mainly used to simulate the wear resistance test of the sleeves, socks, buttocks and other parts in actual wearing. There are many types of cloth flat grinding tools, mainly the Martindale tool.
2. Curved grinding method
The curved grinding method refers to the repeated friction of the fabric in a curved state, and the curved grinding blade according to a fixed path. In the curved grinding method, the sample bypasses the curved grinding blade, the chucks of the upper and lower plates fix the two ends, and the blade is pressed by the impact of a heavy hammer. As the bottom plate shakes up and down, the sample is subjectedto repeated wear and bending, and the number of rubs when the sample breaks is recorded as an indicator of the abrasion resistance of the fabric. The curved grinding method is mainly used to simulate the wear condition of cuffs, trouser legs and other parts.
3. Folding edge grinding method
It refers to bonding the edge of the sample with a glue to prevent the yarn from falling on the edge during the experiment, and then weigh the change in the mass of the sample before and after experiment to measure its value method of wear resistance.
During the experiment, the sample under test tumbled at regular intervals and at a constant speed in a cylindrical test chamber lined with suitable friction materials, and the tumbling action was generated by the paddle blades. After tumbling, weigh the mass of the sample and evaluate the wear resistance according to the mass change. The smaller the Mash loss, the higher the abrasion resistance of the fabric.