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Elemental analysis of the dust composition detection method

Author:QINSUN Released in:2023-03 Click:152

There are many methods to test the composition of textile fabrics, among which the textile raw materials in the state of loose fibers are suitable for hand feeling and visual inspection. Cotton fibers are shorter and thinner than ramie fibers and other hemp fibers and wool fibers and often have various impurities and defects. The fiber has a natural curl, the fiber is thin and short, generally about 38mm long, with poor elasticity, soft handfeel and dull luster. The hemp fiber is relatively thick, usually in the form of flakes, strong, lacks elasticity and luster, and the fabric feels rough and cold. Wool fibers are more elastic, usually curled, thicker and longer than cotton, and feel warmer. The fabric does not wrinkle easily when rubbed and feels smooth and wide. Silk is a long, slender, strong, soft and lustrous fiber that is cool to the touch, and there is no significant difference in the force used to pull and break silk in dry andwet conditions. Of the chemical fibers, only viscose fiber has a big difference in strength between dry and wet state. Spandex yarn is very elastic and can be stretched to more than five times its length at room temperature.

Observing the material is also a very important method of detecting raw materials. The cross-sectional shape of cotton fiber is waist-round with a medium-high waist; the length shape: flat ribbon with natural twist. Cross-sectional shape of hemp fiber (ramie, flax, jute): waist round or polygonal, with a middle hollow; longitudinal shape: horizontal knots, vertical lines. Cross-sectional shape of wool fiber; round or nearly round, some with hairy marrow; longitudinal shape, with scales on the surface. Cross-sectional shape of rabbit hair fiber: dumbbell shape, with hairy marrow; vertical form: scales on the surface. Cross-sectional shape of mulberry silk fiber: irregular triangle; vertical shape: smooth andstraight, with longitudinal stripes. Plain viscose cross-sectional shape: zigzag, skin-core structure; vertical shape: longitudinal grooves. The cross-sectional shape of the rich and strong fiber is less tooth-shaped or round, oval; the longitudinal shape: the surface is smooth. The cross-sectional shape of acetate fiber is trilobed or irregular zigzag; the vertical shape: there are longitudinal stripes on the surface.

The composition of the fabric can also be tested for hand feeling, weight, strength, etc. The soft ones are made of wool and acetate and the harder ones are made of cotton and linen. Moderate is silk, viscose, nylon and so on. Nylon and acrylic fibers are lighter than silk, hemp, cotton, viscose and rich fibers are heavier than silk; vinylon, wool, acetate fiber, polyester, etc. are similar in weight to silk. In terms of strength, stretch it to break by hand and feel the weaker are viscose, acetate fiber, wool, etc. Those with stronger strength are silk, linen, catoen and synthetic fibers. Those whose strength decreases significantly after being wet are protein fibers or viscose and cupro-ammonia fibers. In terms of stretch, wool and acetate fibers feel a greater stretch when stretched, cotton and linen are smaller, and silk, viscose, rich fibers, and most synthetic fibers are moderately stretchy.

The combustion method is the most common way in our daily life to determine the composition of clothing fabrics. Depending on the chemical composition of the fibers, the combustion properties also differ, so that the broad categories of fibers can be roughly distinguished. The comparison of the burning properties of various common fibers is as follows: cotton, linen, viscose fiber, cupro-ammonia fiber close to the flame: no shrinkage or melting; contact with the flame: burn quickly; let the flame burn out; Silk and wool fibers curl and melt close to the flame; touch the flameOn; curl, melt, burn; let the flame burn slowly and sometimes extinguish itself. Polyester fiber shrinks close to the flame; melts when exposed to the flame, smokes and burns slowly; leaves the flame: continues to burn, sometimes extinguishes itself.

The chemical detection method of substance composition is also relatively common. It is necessary to prepare a constant density gradient liquid and generally use a xylene carbon tetrachloride system. To calibrate the density gradient tube, the precision ball method is commonly used. For the measurement and calculation, the fiber to be tested is pre-treated by oil deoiling, drying and defoaming. After making small balls and balancing them, the fiber density is measured according to the suspension position of the fiber. The fluorescence method is to use ultraviolet fluorescent lamps to irradiate the fibers and to identify the fibers according to thedifferent properties of the fibers and the different fluorescent colors of the fibers. The fluorescent colors of different fibers are specifically shown, cotton and wool fibers are light yellow; mercerized cotton fibers are light red, etc.