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Your location: Home > Related Articles > Application of lightweight resin materials in automobile trims

Application of lightweight resin materials in automobile trims

Author:QINSUN Released in:2023-09 Click:120

Application of lightweight resin materials in automobile trims

With the progress of times, the rapid development of modern technology and the rapid development of automobiles, the continuous progress of new materials and new processes, people today come up with a new concept for modern automobiles. Series with higher demands: comfort, safety, environmental protection and aesthetics. In this context, automobile lightweighting, energy saving, consumption reduction and cost reduction have become the dominant design elements of the automobile industry. In addition to the application of lightweight steel in automobile bodies, the application of lightweight resins in interior parts, which account for a large part of the weight of automobiles, constitutesalso an important part of automotive lightweight research. This article explains the application of lightweight resin materials in automobile interior parts, with the aim of promoting the promotion and application of lightweight resin materials in automobile interiors.

1. Overview of lightweight automotive design and application of resin materials in automobiles:

First of all, automotive lightweighting is an important method and means to save energy and reduce emissions. Using plastic can contribute to reduce the weight of the car, thereby indirectly improving its power. According to relevant statistical research, the relationship between fuel consumption y per 100 kilometers and weight x of the car is as follows: y=0.003x+3.3434 , that is to say, for ordinary cars, reducing the weight of the car by 10% can save 6% to 8% of fuel. It can be seen that reducing the weight of the car is of great importance to save energy.Light weighting is the current development direction of the automobile industry, and innovation in the development and application technology of resin materials is the key to light weighting. automobiles is mainly reflectedment in two aspects: First, the development of new or (and) lightweight low-density materials and the preparation of lightweight parts. Their use to replace traditional steel parts can significantly reduce the weight of automobiles. self-weight, such as high-strength steel, aluminum, magnesium alloy and other metal materials, as well as polymer materials and composite materials; the second is to use new forming processes to simplify and lighten the structure of parts and body parts, save production materials and improve working performance.

Lightweighting of the car refers to reducing the overall mass of the car as much as possible while ensuring the strength and safety performance of the car. This must first start with a reasonable design of the car structure. Modern car design almost all uses CAD/CAE/CAM analysis technology. FEA finite element analysis function can be used to analyze the motion trajectory and stress distribution of the parts structure, and the relevant stress diagrams generated can be used for engineering technical analyzes and stiffness and strength calculations. Local optimization not only strengthens the design, but also achieves the aim to lighten the vehicle and design the strongest and safest vehicle structure.

Lightweight materials commonly used for automobiles include: high-strength steel, aluminum-magnesium Alloys, plastic and polymer materials, composite materials to resin base, carbon fiber composite materials, glass fiber composite materials, etc. Although steel plays an indispensable role in automobile structural design, due to its own high density defects and for research and development of resin materials, plastics and polymer materials, \"replacing steel with \"plastics\" has become an inevitable trend in the development of the automobile industry and has spread from automobile structural parts to the entire gautomotive interior and exterior trim.

2. Composition and classification of resin-based composite materials

Com materialsResin-based posites are based on synthetic resin as matrix and fibers as reinforcing materials. They are shaped into different shapes through molding technology under a certain temperature and pressure. A new type of composite material for products. Compared with traditional materials such as steel materials, aluminum alloys and other materials, resin composite materials have the advantages of light weight, high specific strength, corrosion resistance, good vibration damping performance, strong design capability and easy processing. With the continued research and development of resin materials, their application in the automobile industry is becoming more and more widespread, and they have become an important lightweight material in automobiles. Resin-based composite materials are increasingly replacing metallic materials.are traditional. .

The main components of resin composite materials are resin matrix and fiber reinforced materials. The resin matrix includes a thermosetting resin and a thermoplastic resin; The only fiber reinforced materials used include glass fiber, carbon fiber, aramid fiber, high density polyethylene vinyl fiber, etc. Resin composite materials can be divided into thermosetting composite materials and thermoplastic composite materials according to the matrix, and their properties are closely related to the resin matrix.

2·1 Characteristics of thermosetting resin and thermoplastic resin:

Thermosetting resin softens when first heated and can be molded, but it will not soften more when it is reheated after solidification and it will not dissolve in solvents. Thermosetting resins cCommonly used include phenolic resin, epoxy resin and unsaturated polyester resin. , silicone resin, etc. Thermoplastic resin will soften and melt when heated and can be shaped. After cooling, it will be formed and retain the shape obtained. This process has the characteristics of repeatability. The most commonly used thermoplastic resins are: nylon, polyolefins, polystyrenes, thermoplastic polyester and polycarbonate... The resin matrix of automotive composite materials is still dominated by thermosetting resins, but thermosetting The disadvantage of composite materials is that it It is difficult to recycle waste. With the international community\'s increasing requirements for environmental protection, thermoplastic resin composite materials have attracted more and more attention.Compared with thermoplastic resin composite materialsodurcissable, matrix composite materials in thermoplastic resin have many advantages. For example, high toughness and no chemical reaction in the molding process, so the molding speed is fast and the molding cycle is short; Pollution; it can realize fast, pollution-free and automatic production.

2.2 Application of resin-based composite materials in automobiles:

Among automotive resin composite materials, they are usually reinforced with fiberglass and carbon fiber composite materials. Plastic composites Glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) are commonly called \"glass fiber reinforced plastics\" in China. It has the characteristics of high strength, good process performance and low price. It can be used to manufacture bumpers, hoods, fenders and even the entire car body Shell. Commonly used FRPs in automobiles include: polystyrene FRP, nylon 66 FRP, polyester resin FRP, etc. With the development raw materials and technological improvements, the widespread application of FRP/composite materials in automobiles will be the future of the automobile industry.navoidable trend of development.

Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) is the most ideal material for lightweight automobiles. Table 1 presents a comparison of the physical properties of the main composite material reinforcements. As shown in Table 1, high strength steel bars, glass. The specific strength (tensile strength/bulk density) of fiber and carbon fiber is 23,101,272, respectively, with carbon fiber being the highest.

Resin-based composite materials are widely used in automobiles and can be used to make automobile exterior panels, automobile structural parts, interior and exterior trim parts, etc. motors and peripheral components, etc. The application scope has expanded from interior parts and cladding parts to exterior parts, structural parts and functional parts. Traditional bodywork generally uses thin high-strength steel plates. In order to reduce the weight of the car, the use of resin composite materials instead of steel has become a popular trend.ble in the development of automotive materials. General Motors introduced the Corvette sedan with an all-plastic body as early as 1953. Except for the fenders, which were injection molded with nylon, all shells were die-cast with fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) . By 1980, 65% of American cars used fiberglass sheet molding compound for the front fascias and grilles [7]. At present, resin composite materials are widely used in body structural parts (such as frames, beams, columns, etc.) and cladding parts (such as front fascia, front fenders, engine hoods, roofs, doors, trunk lids, rear side panels, etc.) panels, etc.) as well as bumpers, fuel tanks and other body parts: in particular car shells bodywork, car hood hardtopsture, sunroofs, doors, grilles, headlight reflectors, front and rear bumpers, etc. as well as vehicle interior parts. This is the main direction of application of FRP/composite materials in automobiles. It mainly aims to meet the needs of simplified body design and high-quality appearance. At present, the development and application potential is enormous, and the range of applications is wide, including structural parts: front supports, bumper frames, seat frame, floor, etc., use mainly SMC, GMT, LFT and other materials; functional parts: engine valve cover, intake manifold, oil pan, air filter cover, gear chamber cover, air guide cover, intake pipe shields, fan blades, fan guide rings, heater covers, water tank parts, spell shellsie water pump impellers, engine sound insulation panels, etc., the main characteristics of which are high temperature resistance and oil corrosion resistance, mainly for engines and engine peripheral components , the main processing materials are: SMC/BMC, RTM, GMT and glass fiber reinforced nylon, etc. Table 2 shows the application of resin composite materials in vehicle body. associated components.

Conclusion: Although resin-based plastics , as important lightweight materials for automobile, have been widely used in automobile industry, its field ofapplication ranges from automotive interior decoration parts and cladding parts to exterior parts and structural parts. Thermoplastic composite materials have become an important development direction for automotive resin composite materials due to their excellent performance, waste-recyclable and non-pollution of the environment [8]. However, due to the limitations of its research and development level, molding process and component structure development, the proportion of resin materials in the vehicle needs to be increased, and the application of materials to resin base in automobiles can only contribute to the light weight of automobiles A difficult step has been taken. The road ahead is long and distant, and the task is arduous. Due to the limited characteristics of plastics, their resistance is lower than that of materialsmetal rings. Generally, the plasticization of automobile parts will increase the wall thickness of the parts and complicate the corresponding structure. Durable plastics are the main direction of lightening and plasticizing future automobiles.