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Your location: Home > Related Articles > ISO 12945-2:2000 Determination of surface pilling by Martindale Abrasion Tester

ISO 12945-2:2000 Determination of surface pilling by Martindale Abrasion Tester

Author:QINSUN Released in:2023-02 Click:155

1 This method uses a Martindale Abrasion Tester to measure resistance to pilling and other changes on the surface of textiles. This method applies to all textiles, especially woven fabrics.
2 This test method is not suitable for fabrics with a thickness of more than 3 mm, because these types of fabric grippers cannot be clamped properly.
3 The test sample can be before or after washing.
4 This method uses SI as the default unit and the units in parentheses are for reference only.
5 This standard does not introduce security. However, it is hoped that some management documents related to safety and hygiene will have to be prepared before this standard is applied.

Principle
1 The surface pilling or other appearance changes that occur during wear, such as piles, can be simulated and measured with experimental instruments. The fabric is clamped on a Martindale tester, the frontant of the sample and the front of another piece of fabric rub together according to a certain geometric figure. The figure is a straight line at first, then gradually becomes an ellipse, and finally forms a straight line in the direction opposite to the original straight line. The friction must be within one. Operate with light pressure until the prescribed number of laps is reached. After this action, under standard visual conditions, generally use standard images to compare with the original fabric to check the degree of pilling and other appearance changes. Generally, the anti-pilling ability is reported in series.

Significance and Usefulness
1 This method is generally considered not very good in business and its accuracy in commercial comparative tests is poor due to its nature of the wear tester itself, using the same tester,whether internal or external comparison testing, often get different test results. Although this method is not recommended as a commercial test, it is widely used and preferred, especially in countries outside the United States.
2 In business, if a dispute arises due to different test results, the buyer and the seller should conduct some comparative tests to find out the differences between the two laboratories. It may be better to choose an authoritative institution for comparison. At the same time, the samples selected by the two parties must be consistent. The general practice is that the two parties use random sampling to find out the overall level. Once a difference is found between the two parties, it must be corrected and reconciled as soon as possible, otherwise the reason for the difference in results must be explained to the other party.
3 The pillTextile behavior is a very complex indicator, as it is influenced by many factors, including: the type of fiber and the blended products, the size of the fiber, the structure of the yarn and fabric, the fabric Finishing. The anti-pilling performance of fabrics is more complicated under actual wear than under normal conditions, and the actual wear of each consumer is more complicated than under the conditions specified in the laboratory. Experience should be taken into account in applying acceptable test criteria.
4 Changes to the surface of the fabric and its finish have a major impact on anti-pilling performance. Therefore, it is recommended to wash or dry the fabric before testing it. The fabric can also be washed and dry-cleaned at the same time before the test. In this way, it is more sensible to process before testing, but after testing, before testing, the two sides must agreeraf negotiate the status of the test samples.
5 Pilling varies in size and appearance depending on the amount of down present and the color contrast. When it is only necessary to pill the series separately, the above factors are generally no longer taken into account. The formation of pilling may be accompanied by other factors, such as surface hair, color change or surface fluff. Since the overall acceptable level of a given fabric is related to the characteristics of the pilling and other factors that determine the appearance of the surface, it is recommended to assess the acceptance level beyond a simple pilling assessment. According to the order of the surface change of the tested substance, a series of standards can be established for evaluation. When the laboratory test samples are relatively similar in appearance and have the same degree of pilling, it is more beneficial to use visual evaluation standards.use. The anti-pilling performance of the fabric is evaluated by counting the number of beads and evaluating the size and contrast of the beads. This method is not recommended because it takes extra time to calculate, measure and count.
6 For the anti-pilling of the fabric, the visual standard can be used to compare with the test sample. When comparing, the fabric before the test and the standard photo are required to show the anti-pilling performance. In general, classes 1 to 5 are used. Pilling resistance has been evaluated.
7 This method is widely used in woven and knitted fabrics. The pilling performance is affected by the structure of fibers, yarns and fabrics and the finishing method. It has not yet been decided to use this method for non-woven fabric.

Sampling
1 Initial sampling: usually selected from the roller sample.
2 Laboratory Sampling: Take a sampleof 1 yard across the entire width of the roll sample, noting that the outermost 1-yard cloth should be discarded first.

Test samples: selection, quantity and preparation
1 Unless otherwise stated, the samples must be pre-washed or dry-cleaned before cutting and conditioned according to the final use of the fabric, and the details are subject to also be determined through negotiations between the two parties.
2 Cut a pair of round specimens from each lab, with diameters of 38mm and 140mm respectively.
3 Laboratory samples are sampled across the board. Clothing can be sampled along several pieces and the samples should be staggered so that the samples don\'t have the same warp and weft. Wrinkles or other distortions should be avoided at the sampling point and unless otherwise specified, samples should not be taken within 1/10 of the edge of the fabric.cut.

Test Procedure
1 All tests shall be performed under standard conditions. 2 Place a standard wool felt with a diameter of 140 mm and a fabric sample on each operating platform, and place a round foam with a diameter of 38 mm and a thickness of 3 mm together with a sample of the same size in the sample holder Make sure that both pieces are directed outward.
3 Place the sample holder on the platform with the same fabric sample, insert the rod into each sample holder, so that the pressure on the sample with a diameter of 140mm is 3Kpa (200g), this tension is consistent with other tests but without extra heavy hammer.
4 Start the instrument and let it run for 1000 revolutions.

Assessment
Put a round sample with a diameter of 38 mm square on the double-sided adhesive tape and place it in an assessment box.
Use the correct classification conditions, suitable standard fabrics or standard photos, evaluatethe level of the front of each sample, look down at a 45° angle to evaluate the level of the sample, two standard levels are required for evaluation Quantity or card to evaluate the appearance of the test specimen. When it falls between two standard grades, it can be graded on an intermediate scale, such as 3.5 or 2.5.
Grade 5: no pilling.
Level 4: Mild
Level 3: Moderate
Level 2: Severe
Level 1: Very Severe
12-2-1 Set each laboratory sample The series are averaged .

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