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Clothing pills standard and quality evaluation analysis

Author:QINSUN Released in:2023-02 Click:157

In real life, we often encounter the phenomenon of pilling and pilling when wearing and caring for clothing products, which seriously affects the appearance of clothing. Consumer complaints and returns caused by them not only cause problems for the consumer, but also tarnish the company\'s reputation. Pilling is an item with a very high percentage of complaints about the quality of clothing. Different consumers have different views on the acceptability of pilling. The same clothes worn by different people will also produce significantly different pilling. As a result, even some products with qualified pilling indicators will have a serious pilling phenomenon. Not only consumers are concerned, but clothing manufacturers are also confused. Pilling, a common inspection item, has become a difficult problem for garment quality control.

1Pilling and pilling
Pilling clothes means that the clothes are exposed to mechanical friction during wear and that the fibers on the surface of the fabric are exposed to form pilling. continuous friction, the fibers become entangled, and then formed into a ball.The phenomenon. Pilling is a dynamic property and the rate of pilling often changes over time. There are many factors that affect pilling, including fiber type, fiber fineness, yarn twist, structure, fabric style, finishing process, wearing habits and so on. Due to the many factors affecting pilling, there is currently no unified test method that can accurately reflect the pilling tendency of various fabrics during use. In addition, the pilling performance of clothing fabrics is also related to handfeel and wearing comfort. There are certain contradictions. pilling performance is sacrificed to pursue handfeel and comfort,which creates problems in the quality control of clothes. [1]

2 Pilling Standard
2.1 Test Method Standard
Currently commonly used pilling test methods include the circular trajectory method, the pilling box method, the Martindale method, the random roll method. These four methods use different equipment and principles to test the pilling performance of different fabrics in a targeted manner. The standards, principles and scope of the test methods involved are shown in Table 1.

2.2 Product Standards
Product standards refer to the technical regulations on the structure, specifications, quality and inspection methods of certain products. For clothing products, China has the most national product standards and industry-level product standards, covering almost all kinds of clothing in common use, while developed countries such as Europe, America and Japanhave few or almost none and all are formulated by buyers or traders The company standard required in itself. In addition, some well-known organizations such as the International Wool Bureau (IWS), the American Society for Experimental Materials (ASTM), etc. will also formulate some product standards for clothing and fabrics, but compared with the method standards they formulate, the product standards The proportion is very small.
Table 2 lists the requirements for pilling in some different regions and different types of product standards, including product categories, test methods used, test parameters, specific requirements, etc.
Table 2 shows that different regions and different products have different requirements for pills. Low difference, even if the same method is used, there will still be differences in test parameters. This is due to the difficulty of controlling the pilling, resulting in no uniformme method, and uniform testing conditions can effectively control the quality of pilling. . Still, there is no guarantee that products that meet these indicators will not exhibit pilling during actual wear. There are issues with the setting of the indicators, the effectiveness of method selection, the reasonableness of parameter settings, and the wearing habits of consumers. The problems caused by this problem also have the problem of understanding pilling. All these require us to study carefully and face seriously during the quality control process of pilling.

3 Comparison of detection methods
To better understand the differences between different pilling detection methods, this article selects representative sexual methods for comparison. The random tumbling method is rarely used in dress fabrics. The pilling box method is mainly used in woollensknitwear and is widely recognized. It will not be considered here. The commonly used compass method and Martindale method are mainly used for comparison. Now three different types of clothing fabrics were selected, and the comparison test between the two methods and the different test parameters of the same method was conducted. The summary of the specific comparison test results is shown in Table 3.

The letters A~E are used to indicate the parameter settings of different pilling test methods, as follows:
3.1 Circular track method test parameter settings:
3.1.1 Press 780cN, 0 times napping, 600 times pilling (GB/T4802.1 parameters worsted yarn)
3.1.2 Pressure 490cN, napping 30 times, 50 times pilling (GB/T4802.1 Military uniform fabric parameters)
3.1.3 Pressure 590cN , pilling 150 times pilling 150 times (GB/T4802.1 Workwear fabric parameters)

3.1.4 Pressure 490cN, pilling 0 times 50 times (GB/T 4802.1 woolen cloth parameters)
3.2 ​​​​​​Martindale method test parameter setting:
3.2.1 Friction head: diameter 90mm, weight 415g, rub 1000 times against the sample itself
3.2 ​​.2 Friction head : 90mm in diameter, 415g in weight, 2000 times with the sample itself
3.2.3 Friction head: 90mm in diameter, 155g in weight, 1000 times with the sample itself
3.2.4 Friction head : 90mm in diameter, 155g in weight, 2000 rubs against the sample itself
3.3 By analyzing the test results in Table 3, the following conclusions are drawn:
3.3.1 For worsted fabrics (smooth surface), the main comparison is the same method (compass method), the difference between different test parameters, the test results show that the results of different test parameters have large differences in the results of pilling, and the test parameters commonly used for worsted fabrics are uses A, the pilling results obtained arethe best, both are 4-Grade 5, almost no pilling, followed by parameter B for military fabrics and the worst result for parameter C for workwear. During the test it can be determined that the parameter \"fluff\" has the greatest influence on the test results. The fluff is rubbed with a nylon brush, which is an extreme friction method. The careless partial grinding in real life is similar to the Most of the worsted fabrics, even after a small number of rubbing with the brush, there will be obvious lint, and after rubbing with the gabardine abrasive, there will be obvious pilling. On the contrary, if the pilling test is not by brushing, but rubbed against the gabardine abrasive, the pilling result for most smooth worsted fabrics is very good, even if there are more pilling times. Therefore, the selection of test parameters for different circular measurement methods has a great influence on the results offuzzing and pilling.

In addition, different types of worsted fabrics have different anti-pilling properties.Veritin is clearly better than serge and tweed.Organize. Even for the same type of fabric (tweed as an example) there will be big differences in resistance to pilling. Although the test results of parameter A are all 4-5 degrees, the best of parameter B can reach grade 4 and the best one in parameter B can reach grade 4. The difference is only level 1. Therefore, in actual quality control, attention should be paid to mastering some special cases, especially for those worsted fabrics with high contrast styles, the reinforcement effect after pilling should be considered, and the test parameters should be appropriately increased to control Pilling quality effectively.
3.3.2 For woolen cloth, it is a kind of variety more prone to quality problems.
The characteristics of the pilling are relationf large, relatively small density and easy to fall off. The Chinese standard is very loose for wool fabric pilling test parameters, the pressure is 490cN, the pilling is 0, and the pilling is 50. Table 3 shows that the average level is 4-5, and the test results are very good. Such loose conditions will result in many wool fabric garments meeting the national standard, or even much higher than the national standard, but prone to pilling during the actual wearing process. However, many foreign customers use the Martindale method for most of these products. The number of tests is 1000 or 2000 times. This test parameter can effectively check the pilling quality of woolen fabrics. [2]
In addition, taking into account the characteristics of woolen fabric pilling, this document also adds a test method after pilling. By comparing the results, the pilling results of most products have improved after pilling,the average half class, the highest increase of one and a half class, therefore, for the woolen products whose pilling results are almost over, the pilling after pilling can be additionally tested (to ensure that the style of the fabric does not change significantly after the pilling is removed), with a strong improvement in the result, in combination with consumer support, the risk of consumer complaints and returns will be greatly reduced. [3]
3.3.3 For knitted T-shirt fabrics, among the methods used in Table 3, the compass method is determined by the Chinese national standard for T-shirts, and the Martindale method is commonly used by EU customers. The results show that the test results of the circular measurement method are clearly higher than those of the Martindale method. For short fiber T-shirt fabrics, different test parameters of the Martindale method have different effects on the test results, but thereis not a regularity. Of the comparison results, the test results of the two weight rubbing heads have little difference, and the number of pilling It has a certain influence on the result of pilling, and 2000 times is half a digit worse than 1000 times in most cases. In addition, for filament knitted T-shirt fabrics, regardless of the different test parameters of the compass method or the Martindale method, except for the results of the two groups of 4, they are all grades 4-5, which shows that filament T-shirt products The anti- pilling performance is very good, but it should be noted that there are often quality problems in filament products, and the phenomenon after hooking is sometimes confused with pilling, which must be carefully identified so that it can be targeted for quality control. [4]

4 Conclusion
To understand the formation of pilling, standards and method comparison, the goal is to effectively control the pilling quality of clothingto learn. In order to control the pilling quality of clothing products, a certain standard cannot be rigidly used, and appropriate methods should be selected for different products and different applications, and reasonable index requirements should be formulated. It is also necessary to constantly enumerate experience and plan ahead. The key to product quality control is to focus on prevention and the occurrence of low probability events. For some clothing products, a certain detection method may not fully reflect the actual tendency to pilling Using different detection methods, different test parameters, comprehensive assessment. Although there are many factors that influence pilling and many detection methods are involved, quality control is difficult, but as long as you have a good understanding of the relationship between methods, standards and indicators, and keep summarizing and improving in your workk, you can find an effective control of the quality of the pilling.

More about the Martindale Pilling Tester:http://www.abrasiontesters.com/productlist/list-5-1 .html