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Advances in Textile Materials and Functional Finishing for Automotive Interiors أداة الاختبار –

Author:QINSUN Released in:2023-09 Click:81

Advances in textile materials for automotive interiors and their functional finishes

The automotive industry is the largest user of technical textiles. Compared with leather materials, textile materials have attracted the attention of consumers and manufacturers because of their breathability, environmental protection and low cost. According to statistics, each car consumes on average 42 m2 (50 square yards) of textile materials, which are used for interior decoration (seats, roofs, side panels, carpets, luggage compartments, etc.), reinforcing materials, the linings, the backgrounds. fabrics, tires, belts, airbags, silencers and thermal insulation equipment, etc.

Automotive textiles mainly include woven fabrics, knitted fabrics, non-woven fabrics and fiber composite materials. Knitted fabrics have the characteristics of softness, comfortrt, good elasticity, high extensibility, good air permeability, great potential of computer jacquard and three-dimensional shape k.nitting, etc., and the market proportion has increased year by year these recent years [1-2].

1 Selection of textile materials for automobile interiors

1.1 Selection of fibrous raw materials

Automotive fibers are mainly synthetic fibers. Among them, polyester fiber has good wear resistance, high tear resistance, mildew resistance, excellent UV resistance, easy cleaning, good resilience and wrinkle resistance, and relatively cheap price, accounting for 90% of the above automobile textile decorative fabric market, but its hygroscopicity is low and comfort is poor; acrylic fiber has good anti-ultraviolet ability and soft touch feelinger, but its abrasion resistance is not good, so it is suitable for car roof and covered car hood; nylon fiber has good elasticity and wear resistance, can be used in car seats; polypropylene fiber is superior to polyester fiber in strength and density, cheap, easy to reuse, but it can only use drug-dyed or pre-spun yarn, durable Bad abrasion and hygroscopic.

The natural fibers used in automotive interior textile materials are mainly wool and its mixed yarns. It can meet the performance requirements such as lightfastness and abrasion resistance, has good hygroscopicity, better thermal and humid comfort and better antistatic ability, but due to the high price of woolen fabrics, it is generally only used in high-end cars[3].

1.2Selection of structural design

Ordinary single-layer woven fabrics are not suitable for the development of the automobile industry due to lack of luxury, its dosage has gradually decreased. Jacquard woven fleece fabric has good dimensional stability, thick texture and strong pile feeling, but it is more expensive.

Knitted fabrics are widely used in car seats, carpets, headliners, door trims, curtains, seat belts and backrests in due to their good extensibility and elasticity, tarpaulin, airbags, etc. Knitted fabrics include weft knit, warp knit and upholstery fabrics. Due to their different organizational structure, the elasticity is also different. Therefore, it can be selected and used according to the performance requirements of different components. Knitted velvet fabrics are softx to the touch, elegant and luxurious, and have good longitudinal and transverse extensibility. When used as seat covers, they not only look good but also have good air permeability. They are the preferred material for mid- to high-end automotive interior fabrics and have a wide range of applications. Development prospects [4-5].

2 Performance requirements of textile materials for automotive interiors

In addition to meeting the requirements of traditional textiles, the materials automotive interior textiles In addition to being comfortable and beautiful, economical and durable, they also have higher requirements in terms of safety and environmental protection.n properties such as anti-dirt, flame retardant, anti-static, easy to clean and resistant to sunlight [6].

2.1 Color fastness performance

Colorr (pattern) of interior fabrics is completed by dyeing, printing and other processes. The color fastness of car seat fabrics includes color fastness to sunlight, color fastness to water immersion, color fastness to perspiration and color fastness to rubbing. Since the front windshield of the car has a large inclination, the car seats are exposed to the sun for a long time, and the textiles used for the seats must have good color fastness in the sun. Since the driver and passengers have a large contact area with the seats for a long time, the seats may be corroded by sweat or soaked by water. Therefore, good color fastness to rubbing and perspiration as well as good resistance to immersion in water should be the basic requirements for fabrics used incar seats.

2.2 Anti-fouling performance

Automotive decoration fabrics are fixed in the car and often accompany the entire life of the car . Car seat covers are not washed as often as clothes, so the dirt-repellent properties of car fabrics have attracted a lot of attention. Fluorine-containing fabric finishing agents have advantages that ordinary hydrocarbon or silicone-based waterproofing agents do not have and have become the mainstream of today\'s waterproofing and oil-repellent agents. And multifunctionality has become an essential trend in the development of this type of finishing agent. That is to say, the fabric treated with fluorine-containing finishing agent not only has waterproof and oil-proof properties, but also has antifouling, decontamination, antistatic, cleaning properties.dry age, resistance to water washing and other properties. Various features.

Since fluorine-containing finishing agents are more expensive than ordinary fabric finishing agents, this has greatly affected its development. Mixture of fluorine-contaThe combination of finishes with other types of finishes and the production of long-lasting wash fastness not only improves product performance, but also reduces production costs.

2.3 Antistatic properties

The electrostatic phenomenon of automotive interior decoration fabrics is a problem that cannot be ignored. First, static electricity will make passengers uncomfortable (especially when wearing chemical fiber clothing) and frictional discharges will occur when leaving the seat. The driver\'s static electricity slaps can easily cause secondary accidents;Second, the accumulation of static electricity on the fiber surface can easily absorb dust, which may damage the car interior. causing a lot of cleaning and maintenance problems; in addition, there may be gasoline vapor or smoke produced by smoking in the car, which can easily cause fires under the action of static electricity, and static electricity will reduce the sensitivity of the electronic co.components in the car.

Compared with antistatic methods such as chemical modification from polymerization and mixing from spinning, antistatic finishing of synthetic fiber fabrics for automobile interiors is more manageable and flexible, has a short transformation process, less industrial investment and rapid results.

2.4 Flame-retardant properties

Automotive interior materials must have bhas good combustion properties and flame retardant properties. Passengers will have enough time to leave after the car catches fire. The composition and chemical structure of various synthetic fibers in automotive textile materials are different, as are their thermal properties and flammability. At present, no ideal flame-retardant finishing agent suitable for all types of synthetic fibers has yet been found.

Polyester fiber is a fused heat shrinkable fiber. When exposed to a flame, it forms molten droplets and drops. The fiber itself is not easy to burn, but polyester fabric products are treated by various chemical reagents. , preventing the droplet effect when melting and making it flammable. Flame retardants used in polyester fibers are primarily phosphorus and bromine compounds.

Polypropylene fibere is a flammable fiber and does not carbonize easily when burned. It is completely decomposed into flammable gas. Burning gas releases a large amount of heat, which promotes rapid combustion. Therefore, the flame retardancy of polypropylene fiber mainly relies on the synergistic effect of flame retardants containing halogens and flame retardant additives to suppress the combustion reaction of gases.

When polyamide fiber is decomposed by heat, its N-C and CH2-CO chains are broken. The addition of nitrogen-containing compounds as flame retardants will contribute to the flame retardance of polyamide fiber [7].

2.5 Lightfastness and UV Resistance

Automotive interior textile materials are damaged by prolonged exposure to UV rays ultraviolet, heat and humidity. The action may cause degradation. Among the fibers, fiberAcrylic has better UV resistance than other fibers, but its wear resistance is not as good as that of polyester and nylon, and it has few practical applications. Polyester fiber has good wear resistance and UV resistance, so it is used more often. Good anti-UV finishing of interior fabrics can effectively improve their UV resistance and reduce the degradation of fibrous materials.

2.6 Anti-rhyme performance

Rhyme is made of interior decoration materials, especially various kinds of liquids , pulp, volatile matter. the components of powdered and solid automotive detailing materials and the various adhesives used to install these materials evaporate. These substances and vaporized substances condense on the glass plate, especially on car windows and windshields. This affects the driver\'s vision and is difficult to control.ôler.o delete, seriously affecting driving safety.

If the fabric has not been tensioned and fixed for a long period of time, significant atomization will occur due to the buildup of chemical reagents used in the weaving processes , dyeing and finishing of the yarn. resulting from volatile substances The haze phenomenon caused by substances affects the air quality in the car. The surface area of ​​the fibers on the front of the velvet fabric is large and the fogging phenomenon will be more serious. Therefore, the fabric must have certain anti-fog properties.

3 Functional finishing of automobile interior materials

Provide reasonable processing and finishing of dyed (printed) fabrics ), it can make automobile interior materials have antifouling, antistatic, flame retardant and other properties, and meet the design performance requirements of auto textiles.obiles.

3.1 Antifouling finish

Polyester fiber itself is a low surface energy hydrophobic fiber. It can be applied to knitted fabrics through finishing. Excellent resistance to water, oil and stains. For example, using organic fluorinated products TG-435 and TG-5601 from Daikin Company of Japan can achieve better antifouling effects and easy decontamination. General process flow (rolling and baking process): Prepare working solution (organic fluorinated finishing agent 20-40 g/L) → adjust pH value → double dipping and rolling at room temperature (immersion for 1 min , liquid transport rate 70% to 80%) → pre-cooking (80~100℃, 2→3 min) → cooking (50~170℃, 1~2min).

In order to improve the washability and special functions of fabrics, additives such as polyurethane crosslinking agents, anti-UV finishing agents orAntistatic finishing agents are often added to the formula.

3.2 Flame retardant finishing

The following methods can be used to implement the flame retardant finishing process of textiles:

a. Stuffing and baking method

This method is the most widely used process in fireproof finishing. The process flow is: leaf stuffing, leaf pre-baking, leaf baking and post-baking. Upholstery fluid is typically composed of flame retardants, catalysts, resins, wetting agents and softeners, and is formulated as an aqueous solution or emulsion for finishing.

b. Dip drying method

This method is also called exhaust method. The fabric is placed in the flame retardant liquid. It is soaked for a while, then dried and cooked. The self-timerflame penetrates the fiber under the action of high temperature or a blowing agent. The finishing process is basically similar to the process of applying disperse dye. The chemical structure of the flame retardant, the degree of swelling of the polyester fibers during finishing, and the baking and fixing temperature have a significant impact on the fixing rate and durability of the flame retardant. These flame retardants are generally halogenated phosphorous phosphates, cyclic phosphates, etc. Sometimes this fire-retardant finishing method can be done in the same bath as the dyeing process.

c. Coating method

The coating method is a kind of flame retardant mixed with resin, which depends on the adhesion of the resin. This is a finishing method for fixing the flame retardant to the fabric. For example, a water-insoluble flame retardant composed of tAntimony oxide, ammonium polyphosphate and decabromodiphenyl ether is dispersed in water with binders such as polyacrylate or polyurethane, polyvinyl ether and styrene-butadiene rubber. , then fixed by coating or padding → drying → thermal setting process. The disadvantage of this method is that it will cause the dye to bleed, decrease the rubbing fastness and deteriorate the light fastness. It is generally only used for the flame-retardant finish of certain decorative polyester fabrics in automobile interiors.

d. Spray method

ThiProducts that cannot be sorted with ordinary equipment are used in the last process. Fire-retardant finish by hand spraying. For fabrics with bulky, patterned, tufted or fuzzy surfaces, i.e. fabrics that are not suitable for pad drying, sprayn continuous can usually be used.

3.3 Antistatic, flame retardant and antifouling composite processing technology

Antistatic, flame retardant and antipollution properties Usually this is contradictory , because commonly used antifouling and antistatic agents are flammable materials. The anti-oil agent is mainly attached to the surface of the fiber, which leads to a decrease in the flame retardancy of the fabric and an increase in the continuous burning of the surface of the fabric. Obviously, it is an ideal choice to adopt composite or composite-compatible processing technology to meet the multifunctionality of automotive textiles, shorten the production process and reduce production costs. The organic electrically conductive fibers containing metal oxides (or metal fine powder) are woven into fabrics at equal intervals in the form of warp yarns.e to form anti-static gray fabrics, then pre-treated and dyed, and finally treated with flame retardants and waterproof and oil-resistant agents. The finish can obtain fabrics with anti-static, flame retardant, waterproof and oil-proof functions [8-9]. For example, Toray Corporation of Japan proposed in \"Special Opening 8-260351 Flame Retardant Polyester Fiber Preparation Method and Safety Net\" that the polymer of a phosphorus-based flame retardant, an anti-aging agent, a anti-aging and an anti-stain agent, antibacterial agent, insect repellent, antistatic agent, water repellent agent, softener, dye and polyurethane resin to obtain multifunctional flame-retardant and water-repellent fibers with excellent durability [10].

4 Conclusion

My country is a major textile producing and exporting country. With the gradual establishment of the status of the pilgreat industrial industryautomotive trie, The demand for automotive interior textiles will continue to grow, which will provide new opportunities for my country\'s textile industry. Developing multi-purpose automobile interior textiles, improving new product development capabilities is the main way to ultimately eliminate technical barriers to international trade, improve product competitiveness, and occupy the international market as soon as possible .