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Site: Home > Related Articles > ISO 12945-2:2000 Determination of surface pilling test with Martindale abrasion meter

ISO 12945-2:2000 Determination of surface pilling test with Martindale abrasion meter

Author: Released in:2021-11-04 Click:138

1 . This method uses the Martindale abrasion meter to determine the resistance to pilling and other changes in the surface of textiles, and is suitable for all textiles, especially for woven fabrics.

  1. This test method is not applicable to fabrics with a thickness of more than 3mm, because the sample holder of such fabrics is not tight.
    3 . The test sample can be before or after washing.
    4 . This method uses SI as the standard unit, and the units in parentheses are for reference only. 5.
  2. This standard does not involve the introduction of safety aspects. However, it is expected that some management documents related to safety and hygiene should be established before operating this standard.

Martindale abrasion meter principle

When wearing the surface of the hair pilling or other appearance changes, such as pile, can be simulated by the experimental apparatus to determine, the fabric is clamped on the Martindale tester, the front of the specimen and another piece of fabric front in accordance with a certain geometry of mutual friction, the graph for the beginning of a straight line, and then down gradually become oval, and finally and in the original straight line opposite direction into a straight line, friction should be in a gentle pressure until the required number of laps. After this action, under standard visual conditions, a standard picture is generally used to compare with the original cloth to see the degree of pilling and other changes in appearance. The ability to resist pilling is generally reported in terms of the number of grades.

Significance and usefulness of Martindale Abrasion Tester

This method is generally not considered very good in commerce. The accuracy of this method in commercial comparison tests is poor due to the nature of the abrasion tester itself, and different test results are often obtained using the same tester, both internally and in comparison tests with the outside. Although this method is not recommended for use as a commercial test, it is still widely used and considered preferable, especially outside the United States.

In business, once a dispute arises due to different test results, the buyer and seller should do some comparison tests to find out where the differences between the two laboratories lie. It may be better to use an authority to do the comparison. At the same time, the samples chosen by the two parties should ensure consistency, and it is a general practice for the two parties to use random sampling to find out the whole level situation. Once differences are found between the two parties, the unity should be corrected as soon as possible, otherwise the reasons for the difference in results must be explained to the other party.

The pilling performance of textiles is a very complex indicator, this is due to the fact that it is influenced by many factors, this contains: the type of fiber and its blended products, the size of the fiber, the structure of the yarn and fabric, the fabric finishing treatment. The pilling resistance of a fabric is more complex in actual wear than under ordinary conditions of use, and each consumer's actual wear is more complex than under laboratory specified conditions. Experience must be considered when using acceptable test standards.

Changes in the surface of the fabric and its finishing can greatly affect its pilling resistance, so it is recommended that the fabric be washed or dry cleaned before testing, or washed and dry cleaned at the same time before testing. In this way, it is wiser to carry out treatment before testing, but both parties should negotiate the state of the test sample in advance before testing.

Pilling varies with size and appearance, depending on the lint present and the color contrast. The formation of pilling may be accompanied by other factors, such as surface linting, color change or the formation of lint on the surface, when only the level of pilling is given separately and generally the above factors are no longer considered. Since the entire acceptable level of the specified fabric is related to the pilling characteristics and other appearance factors of the surface, it is recommended that the acceptable level should not be simply a pilling level when evaluating it. A series of criteria can be established to evaluate the fabric under test according to the sequence of surface changes. When laboratory test samples are close in appearance and have the same pilling level, it is advantageous to use visual assessment criteria. The number of balls is counted, and the size and contrast of the balls are evaluated to assess the pilling resistance of the fabric. This method is not recommended because of the extra time required for counting, sizing and counting.

ISO 12945-2:2000 Determination of surface pilling test with Martindale abrasion meter

The pilling resistance of the fabric can be compared with the test sample by using the visual standard, the fabric before the test and the standard photo are needed to show its pilling resistance.

This method is widely used in woven knitted fabrics, and its pilling performance is changed by the structure of fiber, yarn and fabric, and the finishing method, so there is no decision to use this method to determine the non-woven fabric.

Sampling
1 Initial sampling: Generally selected from the rolled fabric samples.
2 Laboratory sampling: One yard of the entire fabric sample is taken from the rolled sample, taking care to discard the outermost yard of fabric first.

Test samples: selection, quantity and preparation
1 Unless otherwise specified, the sample should be pre-washed or dry-cleaned before cutting, and the fabric should be moistened according to its end use, which can also be agreed upon by both parties.
2 A pair of circular specimens, 38mm and 140mm in diameter, are cut from each laboratory.
3 Laboratory samples are taken from the whole width, for clothing can be sampled along different pieces of cut, sampling should be staggered, so that the samples taken will not have the same warp and weft yarns. Samples should be taken without wrinkles or other deformations, and in addition to other regulations, samples should not be taken closer than 1/10th of the way to the edge of the fabric.

Test procedures
1 All tests should be performed under standard conditions.
2 Place a standard 140mm diameter wool felt and a fabric specimen on each platform and place a 38mm diameter, 3mm thick round foam with the same size specimen on the sample holder, making sure both specimens are facing out.
3 Place the sample holder on the platform with the same cloth sample and insert the rod into each sample holder so that a pressure of 3Kpa (200g) can be applied to a 140mm diameter sample, consistent with other tests but without the need for an additional weight.
4 Start the instrument and allow it to rotate 1000 rpm.

Grading
A 38 mm diameter round specimen is placed squarely on double-sided tape in a rating box.
Using suitable grading conditions, suitable standard fabrics or standard photographs, grade each specimen on the front side, looking down at a 45° angle to grade the specimen, using two standard grades or cards to grade the appearance of the specimen when tested. Between the two standard grades, can be rated intermediate grade, such as 3.5 or 2.5 grade.
Grade 5: No pilling.
Level 4: Slight
Level 3: Moderate
Level 2: Severe
Level 1: Very serious
12-2-1 The grades of each laboratory specimen are averaged.

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