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Types of Textile Fibers

Author:QINSUN Released in:2023-06 Click:147


1 What is the textile fiber?2 Natural fibers2.1 Vegetable fibers2.2 Animal fibers3 Chemical fibers3.1 Regenerated fibers :3.2 Synthetic Fiber

What is Textile Fiber?

Textile fiber is a threadlike strand used to spin yarn. With Spinning Lab Equipment we can spin textile fibers into yarn. Based on source we usually divide Textile fibers are divided into two categories. That is, natural fibers obtained directly from nature and man-made fibers obtained through artificial processing.

Natural fibers

Natural fibers are textile fibers obtained directly from natural or artificially grown vegetables and especially artificially bred animals . It is an important source of material for the textile industry.

There are many types of natural fibers. Depending on their origin, we can break them down into plant fibres, animal fibers and mineral fibresshare. Cotton, hemp, wool and silk are used for textiles for a long time. Among them, cotton and hemp are vegetable fibers, and wool and silk are animal fibers.

All natural fibers, with the exception of mineral fibers, exert a strong attraction to water in both liquid and vapor forms. Due to this high affinity, the fibers absorb water and stretch, which promotes staining in aqueous solutions.

In contrast to most synthetic fibers, natural fibers are not thermoplastic, which means that they do not become soft and insensitive when heated to dry heat at temperatures below their decomposition point, do not shrink or become highly flexible when heated, and do not become brittle when cooled below freezing. Natural fibers yellow with exposure to sunlight and moisture, and prolonged exposure causes a loss of strength.

Plant fibers

Plantsfibers generally consist of cellulose. Cotton and hemp fibers are the most important plant fibers.

Cotton fibers

The production of cotton fibers is greatest among natural fibers. And they are very versatile. We can use it to sew clothes, bed sheets, bedding and other life items. It can also be used as canvas and conveyor belt material. Or we can process it into flakes for heat preservation and stuffing.

Cotton fibers are divided into fine cotton and long staple cotton. Compared to fine-wool cotton, long-wool cotton is whiter, finer, longer and shinier. It is the best cotton and is generally used for high quality fabrics.

Cotton fiber fabric has low luster, soft touch and good water absorption and strong heat retention function. If before leaving theis not treated at the factory, the resulting clothes have a high shrinkage rate, are difficult to recover, easily wrinkle, and have poor elasticity.

Hemp fibers

Hemp fibers are mainly used to manufacture packaging fabrics and ropes. A part of high-quality hemp fibers can be used for clothing. Hemp is generally hard, impervious to alkalis and acids. And it has good moisture absorption, moisture distribution and air permeability usability.

Hemp fiber can be divided into three types:

1. Sisal hemp, hemp: long single fiber, hard to the touch, difficult to bleach, mainly used for hemp rope bags.

2. Jute: short single fibres, soft to the touch, difficult to bleach, is used for home textiles, curtains, sofas, etcused.

3. Flax, ramie: short single fiber, soft touch, good bleaching effect, suitable for clothing (only suitable for loose clothing).

Compared to cotton fabric, hemp fabric has many similarities. Its strength is greater than that of cotton fabric, in addition to the properties of cotton fabric. It has the highest strength of all natural fibers. Linen fabric is incredibly comfortable to wear. The color does not fade easily, it is more attractive and bright, It is not too cold to alkali and acid, and not easy to mold when wet.

As freshly woven linen fabrics shrink easily, they must be shrunk before leaving the factory. They don\'t shrink in the hands of our customerst. Linen fabrics tend to wrinkle, so take them with you. Take it out shortly after washing and give it a few shakes. However, if you hang it up, it can naturally recover and eliminate wrinkles. Due to its heavy weight, its drape is better than cotton and it tends to harden after absorbing water.

Animal fibers

Animal fibers , also known as natural protein fiber, consists mainly of protein. Animal fibers include hair fibers from animal hair such as sheep\'s wool, cashmere, camel hair, beef meat, rabbit hair, mohair, alpaca hair, etc.; This includes the silk fibers obtained by secreting insect glands, such as mulberry silk, tussah silk, etc.

Wool and silk are the most important animal fibers. The production of wool and silk is much lower than that of cotton or linen. But both are excellent textile materials.


Wool has natural curl and long fibers. And there are scales on the surface. It has the advantages of good elasticity, strong hygroscopicity and good heat retention. The scales on the surface give wool its flexibility.


Wool is a very good hydraulic material that is very comfortable to wear. Warmth: Because wool has natural curl, it can act as a barrier by creating multiple stagnant zones of air. Wool has extremely high stretch and elastic recovery, as well as a unique scale structure and excellent flexibility, so it keeps its beauty well.


The felting reaction created by the scales on the surface von wool fibers is a characteristic and fundamental property of wool. When mechanical force (vibration, friction, pressure, etc.), heat and water act on the wool flakes on the surface, the wool sinks to the root. As the wool sinks, the edges of the scales catch and become tangled, preventing it from growing back to its original length. This makes the constriction even stronger. If the circumference is large, the wool can shrink to half its original size (80% is considered normal for garments). In addition, wool is easily eaten by moths and forms pills with regular rubbing. If exposed to strong light for a long time, the fabric will be damaged and the heat resistance will be poor.


There are two types of silk: domestic silk and wild silk, which includes tussah silk and castor silk. Domestic silk is delicate, white and soft, while wild silk is rougher.

Silk fabric is colourful, shinyzend, noble and elegant, comfortable to wear, sound-absorbing, dust-absorbing, heat-resistant, UV-resistant, moisture-absorbing and dehumidifying, as well as moisture-absorbing and dehumidifying.

At the same time, silk products also have some disadvantages:

1. The crease resistance of silk is worse than that of wool;

2. The lightfastness of silk is very poor, so it is not suitable for long-term exposure to the sun;

3. Silk, similar to wool, is a protein fiber that is particularly afraid of alkaline;

4. Silk clothes are slightly absorbent and not strong enough;

5. Fading occurs under light, water and alkali, high temperature and mechanical friction.

Chemical Fibers

Chemical fibers refer to the use of natural fibers or synthetic polymers as raw materials, through chemical synthesis orhe mechanical processing of the fiber. According to the different materials used, they can be divided into regenerative fibers and synthetic fibers.

Regenerated fibers:

Regenerated fibers are fibers manufactured from natural polymers as raw materials, chemically treated and mechanically processed. According to the raw material, it can be divided into:

Regenerated cellulose fibers, mainly including viscose fibers, tencel fibers (tencel fibers), modal fibers (modal fibers). (mod al fiber), cupro fiber, acetate fiber, bamboo fiber, etc.; regenerated protein fiber, mainly including milk protein fiber, silk protein fiber, soy protein fiber, peanut fiber and imitation spider silk fiber, etc.; special organic compound fibers such as chitin fiber, seaweed fiber, corn fiber (polylactic acid fiber), etc.; man-made inorganic fibers such as glass fiber, metal fiber, carbon fiber, etc.

Among them, the most famous consumer is viscose fiberhe .ViscOse fiber is a fiber that is chemically re-spun from cotton waste. When it comes to filaments, it is called rayon; when cut to cotton length it is called rayon; when it is similar in length and thickness to wool it is called rayon is called synthetic hair.

Synthetic fiber

Synthetic fiber is a fiber made by artificial synthesis and mechanical processing using low molecular weight compounds made from Coal, petroleum, natural gas and agricultural by-products are extracted as raw materials. The main synthetic fibers are: polyester, nylon, polypropylene, acrylic, vinylon and polyvinyl chloride.