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Your location: Home > Related Articles > Martindale Abrasion Tester ASTM D4966 Standard Test Method

Martindale Abrasion Tester ASTM D4966 Standard Test Method

Author:QINSUN Released in:2023-04 Click:30

1. Field of application
1.1 This test method uses the Martindale Abrasion Tester to measure the abrasion resistance of textiles. All types of fabric can be tested with this method, but problems may occur with fabrics with a pile depth of more than 2 mm (0.08 in).
1.2 Values ​​expressed in hour-pound units have been established as the standard; values ​​expressed in International System of Units (SI) units are for informational purposes only.
1.3 This standard is not intended to address all safety aspects related to the application question. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate health and safety practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limits prior to use. NOTE 1—Other methods for determining textile abrasion resistance are described in Test Methods D3884, D3883, D3836, D4157, D4158, and AATCC-93.

2. Documents Cited
2.1 ASTM Standard: D 123 Textile Terminology D l776 Textile Humidity Control for Testing D3884 Textile Abrasion Resistance Test Method (Rotating Platform, Double Head Method) D3885 Textile Abrasion Resistance Test Method (Curved Grinding Method) D3886 Test Method for Textile Abrasion Resistance (Pneumatic Diaphragm Method) D4157 Test Method For Textile Abrasion Resistance (Oscillating Drum Method) D4158 Test Method For Textile Abrasion Resistance (Even Abrasion Method) )
2.2 AATCC Methods And Working Procedures: Evaluation Method 1——Grey Scale Card Test Method 93——Abrasion Resistance of Textiles: Impeller Rolling Method

3. Terminology
/>3.1 Definitions: For definitions of other textile terms used in this Test Method, see D123 Terminology.
3.2 ​​​​​​Definitions of terms specific to this standard:
3.2.1 Wear (noun) - any part of a materialthat rubs against another surface and is damaged. 3.2.2 grinding cycle (noun) - the total number of passes required to complete a geometric shape on a Martindale tester. 3.2.3 cycle (noun)—the 16 moves required to complete a Lissajous figure on a Martindale tester.
3.1.4 Lissajous figure (noun)—begins as a straight line, then widens to become an ellipse, then narrows again to become a straight line. There are 16 moves in a Lissajous figure.
3.2.5 movement (noun)—one revolution of the Martindale tester\'s two external gears.
3.2.6 Standard Atmosphere for Conditioning Textiles (noun)—an atmosphere with a relative humidity of 10% to 23% and a temperature not exceeding 122°F (50°C). 6 3.2.7 Standard atmosphere for textile testing (noun) - the atmosphere used for the test, in whichthe air is maintained at a relative humidity of 65 ± 2% and a temperature of 70 ± 2 °F (21 ± 2 °C).

4. Overview of test methods

4.1 The abrasion resistance is measured by rubbing the sample Movement , forming a geometric figure, i.e. gradually widening from a straight line to an ellipse, and then another straight line form a line in the opposite direction, and run along the same figure again under known pressure and wear. The abrasion resistance was assessed using the different methods described in section 11.

5. Meaning and Usage
5.1 Acceptance Test - This test method is used for the acceptance test of commercial supply of textiles. People are satisfied. 1. The accuracy of this test method between labs is poor, and due to the nature of the wear test itself, technicians use the same test instrument in the same lab or between labslaboratories, and usually cannot obtain consistent test results. Although this test method is not recommended for acceptance testing, it is useful because it is widely used, especially in countries outside the United States.
5.1.1 When using this test method for commercial delivery acceptance testing, if disputes arise between the buyer and the seller due to differences in the reported test results, a comparative test should be performed to determine whether there is a statistical agreement between buyer\'s and seller\'s laboratories deviation on the Recommend an appropriate statistical method to help control for bias. At a minimum, both parties should take a group of samples that are as homogeneous as possible, and should be taken from the same batch type of material in question, and then randomly allocate an equal number of samples to their respective laboratories for testing. A \"Student\" t-test should be used to determine impcompare data on the average test results of both laboratories, with an acceptable probability level chosen by the parties before the test begins. If a bias is found, either the cause of the bias must be found and corrected, or both parties must agree to interpret subsequent test results in light of the known bias.
5.2 Wear resistance is also largely influenced by test conditions, such as the nature of the abrasive, the different modes of operation of the abrasive on the surface to be ground, the tension of the sample and the distance between the sample and the abrasive Changes in pressure and sample size.
5.3 During a specific test, all abrasion resistance tests may deviate due to changes in abrasives. Therefore, the abrasive should be replaced within a certain time or checked regularly according to the standard. Use abrasivesingle-use parts, which can be used only once or replaced after a certain period of use. It can be assumed that the use of permanent abrasives, i.e. abrasives with carbide or similar surfaces, does not change appreciably in a series of specified tests, but due to differences in use, the same abrasive is used in different experiments. change at the same rate. Permanent abrasives can also be altered by the adhesion of finishing or other materials in the fabric being tested and should therefore be checked periodically.clear. Relative wear measurements can also be affected by the qualification method and user judgment.
5.4 The abrasion resistance of a textile material, measured on a laboratory tester, is usually only one of many factors that influence the wear performance or durability that the materialexperienced in actual use. However, \"abrasion resistance\" (in terms usually expressed in terms of the number of cycles required to produce a specified grade or amount of wear on a specified tester, using specified requirements) and \"durability\" (by definition, the ability to resist breakage or puncture during use, including the effects of abrasion) is closely related. This interrelationship varies with different end uses. These various factors can be indispensable in any calculation of expected durability based on specified wear data.
5.4.1 When the abrasion resistance of different materials differs significantly, the laboratory test can be reliable as the relevant end-use performance index, but when the difference between the results of the laboratory test is not large, then it should not be be trusted. In general zou it should not be the basis for predicting practical life under a specified end use unless there is data demonstrating a specific correlation between laboratory wear testing and actual wear in the intended end use.
5.5 These general notes apply to all types of textiles, including: woven, non-woven and knitted fabrics, household fabrics, industrial fabrics and carpets. It is therefore not surprising to find descriptions of many different types of abrasive testers, abrasives, test conditions, test procedures, evaluation methods of abrasion resistance and results.
5.6 To date, all test methods and instruments developed for determining abrasion resistance have been used by different operators in different laboratories and the results obtained can vary widely. However, they represent the current The most commonly used test method.
5.7 Since there are definitely beneed is to measure the relative abrasion resistance, standardized test methods are necessary and helpful, which can clarify problems and reduce confusion.

6. Equipment and Materials
6.1 The Martindale Abrasion Tester (Figure 1) is equipped with the following main replaceable parts:
6.1.1 Standard emery cloth—plain weave hybrid wool worsted fabrics, as described in Table 1.
6.1.2 Standard Felt—12 ± 1.5 oz/yd2 (750 ± 50 g/m2) in mass and 0.12 ± 0.01 in (3 ± 0.3 mm) thick.
6.1.3 Polyurethane foam base fabric - thickness of 0.12 ± 0.04 in 3 ± 0.01 mm) density of 1.941 lbf/ft3 29-31 kg/m3) ( , ( and hardness of 47.22 lbf (170-210 N) .
6.1.4 Textile washingPresser or pressure cutter—38 mm (1.5 in) and 140 mm (5.5 in) in diameter 2 Table 1 Standard wool emery cloth specifications Knot density of warp yarn Number of yarns per unit length Single yarn twist Double yarn twist Fiber diameter Per area uniteid tissue mass (minimum value) 6.1.5 AATCC color change tester Gray sample card. Figure 1 Martindale Abrasion Tester

7. Sampling
7.l Batch sample——Batch sample for acceptance test, according to the applicable material specification or other specifications of the buyer and seller. According to the protocol, multiple rolls of fabric are randomly selected as the batch sample for the acceptance test, and multiple rolls of fabric are used as the basic sampling unit. NOTE 2—Appropriate specifications or other agreements between buyer and seller are required to account for variations between unit packages (bundles, rolls, or pieces) of fabric and between samples taken from unit packages, or between individual garments. a box and a sampling plan showing the actual risk of the producer, the actual risk of the consumer, the accepted quality level and the quality limits.
7.2 Laboratory sample: take one laboratorysample from each box of garments for acceptance testing (see Note 2).
7.3 Samples for Testing: Take samples for testing of each item in the lab sample. Cut three round ones with a diameter of 38 mm (1.5 in).

8. Instruments 8.1 For installation, maintenance and calibration of instruments, refer to the manufacturer\'s instructions.
8.2 See A1.1 of the Annex. 8 R63, Tex/2 (43/in)l7/cm 540 ± 20rpm\'z\' 450 ± 40rpm\'s\' 27.5 ± 20μm Weft R74, Tex/2 (30/in)l2/cm 500 ± 20rpm\'z\' 350 ± 20rpm\'s 29 ±20μm, 5.8oz/yd2 (195g/m2)

9. Humidity Conditioning
9.1 Precondition the sample according to the requirements in D1776 Humidity Conditioning Instructions for Textiles for Testing and Humidity Control. Place the sample in a standard atmosphere suitable for textile testing so that it achieves the approximate moisture balance required for the test. Weigh the samples one at a timea period of at least 2 hours. When the weight of the sample does not increase more than 0.1% compared to the original, the sample is considered to have reached equilibrium.
9.2 Prior to testing, place the conditioned sample in the test standard 3 atmosphere at 70 ± 2°F (21 ± 2°C) and 65% relative humidity for a minimum of 4 hours.

10. Method
10.1 All tests are performed under the standard atmosphere for textile test behavior.
10.2 Place a felt block approximately 5.5 inches (140 mm) in size on each test bench, followed by a standard cloth of the same size. Place the assembly weight (included with the tester) on the table to flatten the fabric and felt. With the cloth and felt firmly attached to the table, set it in place with the installation weight, remove the weight, and inspect for wrinkles or wrinkles. Repeat the installation process if necessary.
10.3 Use method 3 (see 11.3) to test the testreresults and weigh the sample to the nearest milligram.
10.4 Place the sample face down in the sample holder. For substances with a mass per unit area of ​​less than 14.7 oz/yd2 (500 g/m2), place a 38 mm (1.25 in) polyurethane foam disc between the sample and the metal insert. The specimen holder was mounted in accordance with the manufacturer\'s instructions. 10.5 Place the assembled container in the mechanism above the table with cloth and felt pads and add the required weight to achieve the pressure on each sample: 13.1 ± 0.03 psi (9 ± 0.2 kPa) and upholstery cloth is l .74 ± 0.04 psi (12 ± 0.3 kPa). 10.6 In accordance with the manufacturer\'s instructions, install a counting system to record the number of runs required and to start the crusher. If Option 1 or 2 (see 11.1 and 11.2) is used to measure the displacement of the sample to the endpoint, reduce thet number of runs between measurements as the endpoint approaches. Use sharp scissors to trim away the resulting ball of fuzz. If Protocol 3 (see 11.3) is used to analyze the test results, the samples should be weighed to the nearest milligram after the required number of runs has been reached.

11. Evaluation 11.1 Scheme 1 - When two or more yarn knots break in the woven fabric or holes appear in the knitted fabric, the end point has been reached.
11.2 Scenario 2—The end point is reached when the color or appearance changes enough to cause consumer complaints.
11.2.1 The color change can have various causes, for example: fiber loss due to pile finishing, or due to loops of knotted fabrics, or the influence of fancy yarns. In the case of different dyeing of different types of fiber, when fully mixed, the different loss of yarn and fiber can cause significant changes in color and appearance.cause. In this case, follow the AATCC color change gray scale to determine the end point.
11.2.2 When the color change of the AATCC gray scale is grade 3 or less than grade 3, the end point has been reached.
11.3 Scheme 3—Determine the mass loss based on the mass difference before and after wear. This loss can be expressed as a percentage of the mass before grinding.

12. Report
12.1 Indicates that the sample has been tested in accordance with the provisions of the ASTM D4966 test method. Describe the material or product used for the sampling and the sampling method used.
12.2 According to the test plan used, report the following content:
12.2.1 The type of abrasive used and the quality by weight.
12.2.2 For Option 1, the average number of runs required to break 2 or more yarns in a woven fabric or to make a hole in a knitted fabric. 12.2.3 For dry period schedule2, under the specified number of operations, the effect of wear on gloss, color, fuzzing, pilling, etc. will be expressed in terms of quantity value or comparative series.
12.2.4 For Option 2, the average number of runs required to reach level 3 or lower on the grayscale map.
12.2.5 If another method is used to evaluate the wear effect, the specific method used must be stated.
12.2.6 For schedule 3, the difference in mass loss before and after wear is reported as milligrams of weight loss, or calculated as a percentage using the following formula: [(A-B)/A]×100 where: A = before grinding Weight, B = weight after sharpening.

13. Precision and Bias
13.1 Precision—One to two days, four measurements were performed on two types of Martindale garment equipment using Scheme 3. Groups of four were performed for 25,000 runs and weight loss was measured. Test results are givenreported in four groups. On the first day Machine A 1.1 mg 1.1 mg 2.0 mg 1.2 mg Mean: Standard Deviation: On the second day Machine A 1.6 mg 1.8 mg 1.1 mg 1.6 mg Mean: Standard Deviation: 1.53 mg 0.26 mg Mean: Standard Deviation: Machine B 1.9 mg 2.0 mg 1.1 mg 1.8 mg 1.70 mg 0.35 mg 1.35 mg 0.38 mg Mean: Standard Deviation: Machine B 1.0 mg 0.6 mg 0.2 mg 0.7 mg 0.63 mg 0.29 mg
13.2 Deviation - Abrasion Resistance of Textiles and Garments The performance value is determined only according to this test method. Within this range, test method D 4966 has no bias.