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High-quality abrasion resistance testing of fabrics

Author: Released in:2023-02-10 Click:55

In the second half of the twentieth century, textile raw materials were used on a large scale. In various non-textile fields - from the application of fiber composites, high-performance structural materials, various materials and products for industry, vehicles (cars, boats, aircraft), spaceships, professional sports, agriculture, road construction and construction, human and animal protection , environmental protection, medicine. Such textile materials are mentioned. As a technical textile, it is mainly made of some specific fibers, such as the physical characteristics of high-tech fibers preserved for a long time under environmental conditions, characterized by high quality. These new generations of high-performance textile raw materials, manufactured using state-of-the-art processes, offer a way to improve the performance of fabrics. The physical and mechanical properties are affected differently in use, while at the same time thetextile properties are preserved, such as color fastness, dimensional stability, etc., strength, good abrasion resistance, etc. These materials come in the form of clothing, textiles. Cartridges for shoes or any other end-use product, for good preservation of the appearance and therefore long-term use. However, high performance takes on a completely different meaning when it comes to meeting the needs of soldiers, police officers, mountaineers and many other specific users whose service life depends on the resistance of the textile materials they use.


High quality materials are no longer a mystery, but a question of when. Better and smarter fabrics will emerge. As in everyday life, people like to be surrounded by textile materials, which retain their original properties and have high wear resistance under the conditions of use, that is, high wear resistance. It is necessary to choose the best method and suitable procedure toto test them, as well as the way to express the test results. This might be a good place to start. Development of new methods and test procedures and construction of suitable measuring equipment.


Nowadays there are different types of instruments to test wear resistance. Over time they have evolved with different loading conditions and materials to be more realistic and closer to real conditions. Their results are not mutually comparable, often using different instruments to report contradictory results. Recently, abrasion resistance has been most tested by Martindale, while the process of cycling through Schobel's tangential direction is largely abandoned.


Abrasion resistance via the Schober test, however, has its advantages and disadvantages. The use of silicon carbide paper causes intensive wear at lower cycles and tangentially. Contact the sample mand the abrasive. When using the test method, the specimen moves according to the Lissajous figure, the standard woolen cloth is worn over the entire surface, which naturally contributes to reliable results. This method works well on everyday fabrics, but even more so on high-quality fabrics. For the Performance Fabrics group, the method can be modified, as we discussed earlier.


Why is this important? As we all know, a heat resistant textile material. Abrasion, such as Nylon®, can withstand 100,000 mills Martindale without sample quality loss or defect. It is clear that this type of material will grind wool, not the other way around. Therefore, the question is whether the test method should be used to determine whether Cordura® Abrasion Resistant, or another comparable high performance fabric, is suitable or whether the method should be changed in order to have meaningful results?


Some adjustments to the standard test method voor Martindale abrasion resistance are also possible, all with the aim of achieving significant results. The testing of materials, fibers and textiles at the Faculty of Textile Technology of the Ministry of Textiles University of Zagreb has committed to providing the army and police with high quality fabrics. Use for a while. Several high-performance fabrics were examined. The need to determine resistance to wet wear is one of the most important requirements. throughout the investigation.


Fabric used in military and police uniforms is exposed to many physical and chemical agents, especially rain and moisture, during regular use. This means that in addition to testing the dry abrasion resistance, the required current standards, standards must be supplemented with wet abrasion resistance testing. This method of determining wear resistance is particularly suitable for damage. When tested, it shows damagedtextile material has a significant decrease in wet strength. The advantage of state modification is that the same methods, procedures and equipment can be used for drying materials. Like the above, both air permeability and water resistance have good wear resistance. Important for high-performance substances used by climbers, soldiers, police officers, firefighters, etc. Ideally, the test method can be adapted to the purpose: with the same instruments, procedures and slightly modified methods, the right insight power is obtained. Effect of wear on water or air permeability. In this way, more knowledge is also gained about the impact of the wear resistance of the test, in relation to breathability and water resistance.


In general, the development of materials is not sufficiently advanced nowadays. Development of test methods and test equipment. Various problems when testing hoovaluable substances in many test laboratories. The authors aim to demonstrate the need to develop methods and devices capable of following the development of today's high performance fabrics.

1.1 Wear resistance
For a long time, people think that the wear resistance test is the wear resistance. Textile is a procedure for assessing the durability of a product, i.e. its suitability for its intended use. However, over time, research has shown that this is not the case. That has always been the case, but that does not mean that the program loses importance. This is confirmed by the development of measurement technology over the years, aimed at obtaining more realistic results, closer to reality. Eventually it becomes clear that it isn't even that. It is theoretically possible to build a machine to measure the wear of fabrics, and the system needs to be improved to measure the wear of specificmeasure fibres, yarns and fabrics. The load of each textile.
Textiles (test objects) undergo wear in the presence of relative electrical resistance and are caused by friction, which wears the textile material. Real-time surveys only cover textiles and/or abrasives, simultaneously or separately. Process wear is wear that can last for a period of time without causing noticeable damage. Abrasion is used for this process. If the process is performed on a material that is visibly damaged or fails, a hole appears in the tissue and a specimen break is indicated.


Evaluate the abrasion resistance by measuring the following values:
Crack occurrence after a specific procedure Weight loss,
Loss of material strength after tear,
Increased breathabilityAfter the fabric tearing,
Increased optical bandwidth after fabric tearing,
Thickness reduction
Appearance of the worn surface (overlaps, bulges, clumps, etc.)
Textile wear, abrasion and test results are influenced by many factors. Factors related to textile materials, the environment and test conditions in which the test is performed. Factors related to textile materials are:
Fiber type ,
Fiber properties,
Yarn twist,
Fabric structure
Surface properties (hairiness, smoothness, finish, etc.).


The surface size of the test area is closely related to humidity and temperature, which means that the test must be performed in a standard test environment. The main factors for conducting the test process are:
·type of wear,
·abrasive type,
wear direction ,
tube voltage,
type of tube carrier,
Sanding time
Of textile materials


The influence factor of this group of factors is particularlyof high. It should be noted that the conditions of the tests performed with different methods vary greatly. It is therefore impossible to compare test results obtained by different methods, and if the test conditions are not the same, the results obtained in a particular process. Therefore, the results of relative wear testing are usually descriptive, although they are important. Of general interest.


In practice, durability is the most accurate way to test the abrasion resistance of a fabric, when evaluating the performance of a used product, as clothing is tested in most cases . wear and tear of fabric used for bedding, furniture, technical fabrics, textiles and other similar conditions. A series of test procedures and related equipment developed are mainly classified according to the method of execution. The way of testing, staring and Dragens of the samples, and the wear method. In practice, the most common method is circular edge wear, either permanent. Contact within the test area, or contact with the surface on a particular part during contact. Procedure, cracks in no preferred direction.