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Assessment of safety standards, tests and solutions for automotive interior materials أداة الاختبار –

Author:QINSUN Released in:2023-09 Click:108

Safety standard evaluation, testing and solutions for automobile interior materials

With the rapid development of the automobile industry, people stay in cars longer and longer and the quality of the environment inside the car will be further maximized. It affects people’s health and therefore attracts more and more attention. Automotive interior materials constitute a significant source of pollution for the quality of the environment inside the car. They are mainly caused by organic solvents remaining during the production and processing of automotive interior materials such as textiles, leather and plastics, including volatile organic compounds. such as benzene, formaldehyde and xylene. The pollution caused by this reason is particularly significant in new cars that have just been purchased.

1. Performance evaluation indicatorsSafety s of automobile interior materials

The existing safety performance evaluation indicators of automobile interior materials are mainlyInclude atomization value, flame retardancy, odor, content into formaldehyde, the volatile organic compounds emitted by gases. Since there are no control standards for environmental pollutants in vehicles in China, some companies have not paid enough attention to environmental pollution in vehicles and failed to take corresponding measures. Pollutants for which there are no standard limits, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other carcinogens, will most likely create a “black hole” of pollutants. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the monitoring and testing of the on-board environment, increase the monitoring elements of on-board pollutants, and formulate limitses of in-car pollutants to objectively reflect the air quality conditions in the car, promote in-car environmental pollution prevention and control, and consumer safety protection. Physical and mental health has become a pressing issue.

1.1 Assessment of air quality in the car

(1) Sources of air pollutants in the car Pollutants in the car

Firstly, they come from of the main materials of the car. The release of harmful substances;

The second is the release of harmful substances contained in the interior decoration materials of the car;

The third is the entry of external pollutants;

Fourth, it comes from the lifestyle habits of the drivers and passengers in the car.

Release of small unpolymerized molecules such as styrene, vinyl acetate, propylene, phenolic and molecular compounds.ules with a lower degree of polymerization in polymeric materials such as plastics, rubber, and chemical fibers used in automobile bodies; automobile The interior decoration materials themselves and the various adhesives used will contain pollutants and cause secondary air pollution in the car. The pollutants mainly include formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, chloroform, acetone, xylene, olefins, chlorinated hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons, etc. ;

The pollutants are mainly carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, hydroxides, etc., and the pollutants accumulated in the pipeline after long-term use of automobile exhaust and evaporators air conditioning in the car will also enter the car; Air fresheners, formaldehyde eliminators and car spices sprayerized by passengers to improve the smell of the new car are also secondary sources of air pollution inside the car. Smoking in the car by drivers and passengers will also increase harmful volatile substances and dust. Air pollutant levels.

 (2) The harm of air pollution in the car

When the car is driving, the interior of the car is a relatively closed environment. Passengers who have been exposed to a strong polluted automotive environment for a long time will develop symptoms such as headaches and fatigue. In severe cases, they can develop dermatitis, asthma, low immunity and even leukopenia. Therefore, comprehensive testing standards must be established to evaluate the pollution level of the vehicle interior environment.

 1.2 Flame-retardant performance

Auto interior materialsMobile phones must have good flame retardant and flame retardant properties to provide drivers and passengers with a certain survival and escape time. Developed countries have formulated strict regulations on this, such as: US Federal Regulation FMVSS571.302, International Organization for Standardization ISO3795, and Council of Europe Directive 95/28/EC all have regulations on combustion characteristics of automotive interior materials.

Our country also formulated the corresponding mandatory standard GB8410-1987 in 1987. After two revisions in 1994 and 2006, the GB8410-2006 standard was created. This standard corresponds to FMVSS571.302. Our country\'s GB8410-2006 standard has too low flame retardant performance requirements to effectively prevent and delay the occurrence of fires. Among them, there is only one simple requirement for the flame retardant performance of all motor vehicles. interior materialsurs active, that is, the horizontal combustion rate under the relevant test conditions is not more than 100 mm/min. This threshold is so low that most plastics, especially thermoplastics, can meet the requirements without any flame retardant treatment. Such interior materials actually become “combustion-supporting materials” in the event of a fire. Therefore, indicators such as flame retardant degree, oxygen index and smoke density of automobile interior materials can be considered at the same time.

1.3 Atomization performance

Atomization performance is a crucial indicator of automobile interior materials. Car interior materials such as leather, plastics, textiles and adhesives for bonding materials contain certain volatile substances. Under certain conditions, they evaporate and condense on car windows or windshields, afseriously affecting the driver\'s vision and safety. Driving safety. At present, there is no uniform requirement for atomization performance in China. Some domestic and foreign automobile standardization bodies and some automobile brand manufacturers generally require the atomization value of leather for automobile interiors to be ≤ 2 mg to 5 mg.

1.4 Other indicators

1.4.1 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

In recent years, the media have repeatedly reported that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are potent carcinogens, have been detected in many domestic cars (PAHs), due to the dangers of PAHs, many countries and regions have restricted their use, for example: European Directive 2005/69/EC (the 27th revision of the Directive 76/769/EEC) requires the addition of oil and tires The benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) content is less than 1mg/kg or the total content of 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is less than 10 mg/kg. The US Environment Agency requires the 16 types of PAHs subject to priority assessment to be uncontained, and the German certification standard GS ZEK01 .4-08 requires the BaP limit to be 1 mg/kg or The total content limit of 18 PAHs is 10 mg/kg (class II material). National national standards that limit air quality in vehicles, such as GB/T27630-2011 \"Guidelines for the assessment of air quality in passenger vehicles\" and GB/T17729-2009 \" \"Air Quality Requirements in Long-Haul Passenger Vehicles\", does not cover this issue. carcinogenic. . Therefore, the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is also necessary as an indicator for safety evaluation of automotive interior decoration materials.

 1.4.2 Flame retardants i

At present, my country\'s proportion of automobile plastic parts in the total number of automobiles has reached about 10%, especially automobile interior plastic parts. A flame retardant is required. Flame retardancy is the most important safety feature of automotive interior materials. The use of flame retardants for finishing can impart certain flame retardant properties. However, some of the flame retardants currently in use are themselves toxic or produce toxic substances when burned. Some are flame retardant. The agent is bioaccumulative and carcinogenic. Therefore, the limit of these flame retardants should also become one of the indicators to assess the safety performance of automotive interior materials. In addition, some conventional indicators such as azo dyes, extractable heavy metals, pentachlorophenol, etc. should also be included in the safety assessment of automobile interior decoration materials. The determination can be carried out according to the national standard test method of the corresponding material.

2. Index test method

2.1 Determination of the content of air pollutants in the car

According to the source pollutants, non-metallic materials, components and complete vehicles are tested for air pollutants. There are three broad categories of testing for air pollutants in cars: odor assessment, which relies primarily on human sense of smell for quality assessment (VDA270), and electronic nose measurements (SAEJ351 ) can also be used; quantitative analysis of volatile organic pollutants (VOC), including top Air chromatography, thermal desorption method, high performance liquid chromatography, etc. ;for the determination of carbon and nitrogen oxide content, the non-dispersive infrared gas determination method (GB/T28370) can be used.

At present, national standards have been published for VOC testing of complete vehicles, but there are no relevant standards for VOC testing of non-metallic parts, and national test methods VOCs for non-metallic parts are not unified. . Testing standards for parts and materials include: ISO12219, VDA270, DIN13130, DINEN13725, VDA275, VDA277, VDA278, SAEJ351 and many other standards. Regarding the test methods and organic pollutant limit requirements for complete vehicles, the testing and evaluation are mainly based on the national standards HJ/T400-2007 and GB/T27630-2011.

 2.2 Flame retardance test

Flame retardance test is a method of testing for the ability of the object under test to retard thecontinuation, propagation and diffusion of flames. After years of development, flame retardancy testing has given rise to various standards and has become a very important testing item in related industries. Most car interior materials combustion performance testing requires the use of fire sources specified in the standard in harsh testing environments, and different fire sources are used to impact the combustion materials. test, then the combustion phenomenon of the materials is observed and evaluated. For example, GB8410-2006 specifies the test methods and evaluation indicators for the combustion characteristics of automobile interior materials. The flame retardancy test can also refer to the following standards: DIN75200, ISO3795, ASTMD5132, FMVSS302, JISD1201, UL94, etc.

2.3 Atomization performance

Thanks to the atomization test from the inside ofautomobile decoration materials, the control of volatile substances in these materials can be achieved, in order to effectively reduce environmental pollution inside the car, it has become an important way for automobile manufacturers and automobile interior materials to control product quality.

At present, the atomization testing methods of automobile interior materials include gravimetric method, gloss method and mist method. In the nebulization process, the difference is that the measured parameters are the condensation components, nebulization value or mist. The standards that can be referred to are the German standard DIN75201, the American standard SAEJ1756, ASTMD5393, the British standard BSEN14288 and the international standard ISO6452.

2.4 Determination of other properties

2.4.1 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

The principle of testingon polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is as follows: cut the representative sample into pieces and use an appropriate solvent (such as toluene, cyclohexane, etc.) ultrasonic or Soxhlet extraction, after purification, use gas chromatography-spectrometry of mass or high performance liquid chromatography for analysis. The German certification standard GS ZEK01.4-08 clearly stipulates the limit requirements and test methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The detection limit for each PAH measured by this method is 0.2 mg/kg. Additionally, standards that can be referred to include: ISO/TC45/SC3, EPA-TO-13A, NFX43-404-12-2009, VDI4300Blatt2, etc.

2.4.2 Prohibition of flame retardants

Although flame retardants can slow down, stop or make it difficult for flammable substances to burn, they are harmful to the human body and the environment. \'environment. Some retFlame retardants (such as brominated flame retardants) have been included in the prohibited list, such as the European Directive 76/769/EEC which clearly states that brominated flame retardants are prohibited. The testing process for banned flame retardants is generally as follows: the sample is ultrasonically extracted with a solvent, filtered to concentrate the extract, and detected by GC-MS/LCMS/GC-NPD. It can be detected by referring to the method specified in GB/T30512-2014 “Requirements for prohibited substances in automobiles”.

3. Measures to be taken against pollutants inside the car

According to the survey, environmental pollution inside the car inside the car is more than 10 times that of the outside of the car. the car, and we want to brake it fundamentally. This can be achieved through source control and final processing.

3.1 Control at the source

At present, the national standards for environmental protection and safety of automotive interior materials mainly include GB/T27630-2011 \"Guidelines for the evaluation of the quality of automotive interior materials\". \'air among passengers\'. Cars\", GB/T30512-2014 \"Prohibited material requirements\", etc., the indicators required in the standard are not complete, and some indicators, such as flame retardancy, are too low. The country or industry should publish more complete information and stricter relevant standards to avoid the emergence of \"black holes\" for pollutants.Manufacturers should implement stricter standards, select environmentally friendly materials and control the generation of pollutants at the

3.2 Final treatment

For the final treatment of ambient air pollutants in the car, suggestions are: open more windows forventilation ; place activated charcoal, bamboo charcoal and other absorbent purification materials in the car; install car air purifiers, such as car oxygen bar, photocatalyst car air purifier, solar car air purifier, etc. ; use biological enzymes to break down harmful substances.

Abstract

As automobiles enter the daily life of consumers, the pollution caused by interior materials of automobiles is closely related to human health, which has become a problem unavoidable. Strict in-vehicle pollutant assessment standards are used to control the interior environment of cars and protect the health of drivers and passengers.

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